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Under a amendment to the wine laws, Steirerland the modern Austrian state replaced Steiermark the old duchy , which included the eastern half of modern Slovenia as the name for Styria on wine.

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Bei Erwachsenen verlief sie nicht so oft tödlich. Ähnlich wie die Pest, forderten auch die Pocken in verheerenden Epidemien zahllose Todesopfer. Jahrhundert lösten die Pocken sogar die Pest als schlimmste Krankheit ab.

Der Krankheitsverlauf beginnt am Nasen- und Rachenbereich, wo die Pockenviren die Schleimhäute befallen. Von dort werden sie über die Blutbahn in den gesamten Körper geschwemmt.

Es treten Fieber und Schüttelfrost auf. Dann entstehen die bekannten Bläschen auf der Haut, und zwar am ganzen Körper. Die Pocken sind nicht zu verwechseln mit den Windpocken. Er kann sich kaum bewegen, ausstrecken oder umlegen. Viele starben verlassen an Hunger. Von den wenigen, die überlebten, verloren einige ein Auge oder erblindeten. Originaldatei auf Wikimedia Commons. Im Mittelalter starb jedes Kind an Pocken, noch bevor es das zehnte Lebensjahr erreichte. Die Pocken erreichten Europa wahrscheinlich im Jahr , als siegreiche römische Truppen aus Syrien zurückkehrten.

Ab da verbreitete sich die Seuche und wütete 24 Jahre lang. Ein Massensterben über weite Landstriche war die Folge. Ab da trat die Krankheit immer wieder in Deutschland vereinzelt auf. Jahrhundert trugen die Kreuzritter wesentlich zur Verbreitung der Pocken bei und ganz Europa bis in den Nahen Osten litt unter den Pocken, die Angst und Schrecken unter den Menschen verursachten. In manchen Gegenden gehörten Kinder auch erst ab dem Jedoch wird bei der Ruhr der Kot im oberen Teil des Darmkanals zurückgehalten und ausgeleert wird nur eine schleimige oder blutige Flüssigkeit.

Übertragen wird die Ruhr zumeist über verseuchtes Trinkwasser oder über Fliegen, die den Überträger bspw. Überträger der Ruhr können Amöben oder Bakterien sein. Dementsprechend unterscheidet man auch in Amöbenruhr und Bakterienruhr:. Der Erreger sind Amöben, die sich im menschlichen Dickdarm durch Zellteilung vermehrt. Der Infizierte ist also gleichzeitig Überträger. Besonders häufig trat die Ruhr — vor allem im Mittelalter — zu Notzeiten auf.

Denn durch die Nahrungsmittelnot war das Immunsystem der Menschen geschwächt, wodurch sich der Körper kaum gegen die eindringenden Erreger selbst wehren konnte. Als Ursache der Pest vermutete man im Mittelalter wie auch bei anderen Krankheiten Veränderungen der Luft, giftige Dünste und schlechte Sternenkonstellationen. Das berühmte Pariser Gutachten von erklärte das Auftreten der Krankheit damit, dass am März des Jahres die drei oberen Planeten im Hause des Wassermanns zusammentraten, um eine besonders feuchte und gefährliche Ausdünstung auszustrahlen, die sich in der Lunge zu einer giftigen Materie zusammenballte, die die Pest erzeugen sollte.

Die meisten Menschen des Mittelalters konnten sich das Auftreten der Pest nicht erklären. Um ihre Angst zu bewältigen, wurde die Schuld auf andere geschoben.

Die Juden wurden beschuldigt die Brunnen vergiftet zu haben, dass die Juden selbst an der Pest erkrankten und auch starben, galt kaum als Beweis für deren Unschuld. Was tun die Ärzte? Obskure Ratschläge machten die Runde. So sollten beispielsweise die Fenster nur nach Norden geöffnet werden, Schlaf zur Tageszeit war verboten, schwere Arbeit verpönt. Die Beulenpest war einer der Schrecken der mittelalterlichen Menschen.

Der Körper war ein Werkzeug, das dem Menschen bei der Erfüllung seines gottesfürchtigen Alltagswerkes dienen sollte. War man gesund, so galt das als Zeichen der Gnade Gottes und als Hinweis darauf, dass Gott mit einem zufrieden war. War man aber krank, konnte das entweder als Prüfung Gottes verstanden werden, oder aber als Strafe für eine falsche Lebensführung.

Wer sie überlebte bewies das Wohlgefallen, das Gott mit ihm hatte. Anders die Lepra Aussatz , sie wurde als Krankheit gesehen, deren Auftreten man durch sein eigenes Verhalten verschuldet hatte. Lepra galt als Krankheit die durch Geschlechtsverkehr übertragen wurde und als Strafe Gottes. In der Krankheitslehre des Mittelalters finden sich humoralpathologische, pneumatische und mechanistische Elemente.

Die Grundlage bildete die Säftepathologie. Der Zustand der Gesundheit war abhängig von dem Gleichgewicht der Säfte, bzw. Die Krankheit brach erst bei starker Abweichung von den normalen Verhältnissen aus, wobei sich die Säfte entweder quantitativ oder qualitativ veränderten.

Als Krankheitsursache rechnete man primär mit fehlerhafter Lebensführung z. Nahrung, Geschlechtsverkehr, Vergiftungen, aber auch starke Gerüche etc. Ein Beispiel für die Vergiftung durch Nahrung wäre das Antoniusfeuer, dessen Auslöser ein giftiger Pilz war, der sich in die Roggenähre einnistete. Die Menschen im Mittelalter erkannten die Krankheitsursache allerdings nicht. Der Mensch hat sieben Genossen im Leben, die ihn plagen: Das Leben im Mittelalter war von Krankheit geprägt.

Der Tod war allgegenwärtig. War als Kind vor ca. Man vermutete eine Krebserkrankung. Doch es war eine Krankheit aus dem Mittelalter übertragen durch frische Kuhmilch.

Angeblich handelte es sich um einen Bankischen Virus. Ich kann über diese Krankheit aber nichts finden. Vielleicht können sie mir helfen??? Das dürfte Morbus Bang gewesen sein. Das dürfte Morbus Bang gewesen sind — ein gramnegatives Bakterium — kein Virus- das durch nicht pasteurisierte Milch oder infiziertes Fleisch übertragen wird.

Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Lepra im Mittelalter Die Schmerzunempfindlichkeit von Leprakranken wurde von manchen Kriegsherren in der Weise benutzt, dass sie Leprakranke in die Schlacht zum Kämpfen schickten, um den Feind einzuschüchtern — einerseits durch scheinbar gefühlslose Wesen, andererseits durch die Angst vor einer Ansteckung.

Originaldatei auf Wikimedia Commons Im Mittelalter starb jedes The most important feature of the 12th century, however, was the development of the narrative window, consisting of a series of medallions painted with pictorial subjects. This type of window was, so far as is known, first used extensively between and at the Abbey of Saint-Denis near Paris.

A secondary but significant development of the second half of the century was the use of allover decorative patterns, or diapers, on the groundwork adjacent to the figures. This design device was probably more common at first in Germany than elsewhere, and an early example is in the Jesse tree window c. By the 12th century the production of stained-glass windows in northern Europe was considerable, and regional schools begin to be discernible, especially in France, Germany, and England.

In France a number of important regional schools of glass painting emerged, one of the earliest of which was in the west. The most important works of this group include the Ascension window c. In the northeastern region of Champagne appeared another quite distinct group, whose best work is found in the Redemption and St. Only fragments of these windows are left, but the three windows c. The stylistic antecedents of these schools are difficult to pinpoint.

The strongly Romanesque character of the Le Mans Ascension window, its general composition , and the particular stylization of drapery forms is similar to earlier manuscript paintings from western France.

The similarities between the two are so marked that it is not impossible that the artist worked in both mediums. There is less 12th-century glass extant in Germany than in France. The outstanding example of German stained glass of the first half of the century is the series of five prophets c. These hieratic figures have the monumentality of design, rigidly frontal and schematic, characteristic of Romanesque art. The bold use of ruby, green, yellow, and violet glass is completely alien to contemporary French developments.

In the second half of the century, art in northern Europe generally, and perhaps more so in Germany, was influenced by Byzantine models.

England has only fragmentary remains of 12th-century glass. The nave clerestory windows in York Minster contain some reused panels from a series of narrative windows, one of which depicted the life of St. Another panel, a single figure of a king from a Jesse tree, shows some affinity in style with the glass at Saint-Denis and Chartres but is probably later in date c.

The outstanding survival from the end of the century is the splendid series of figures representing the descent of Christ from Adam, made for the choir clerestory windows c. Their features show a new humanism, and there is a sense of movement, even tension, in their bodies and draperies, comparable to contemporary English manuscript painting.

A significant feature of the 13th century was the development of the grisaille window, composed largely of white glass, generally painted with foliage designs, and leaded into a more or less complicated geometric pattern. This type of design was employed partly as a means of introducing a larger amount of light and partly because it was considerably cheaper than coloured glass.

The combination of grisaille glass and coloured subject medallions, or figures, however, disrupted the monumental overall unity, which is a feature of a window composed entirely of coloured glass, by allowing the penetration of pure light. This change had an important effect on style; the painted design became more linear and refined, the scale more broken and delicate. Although the combination of grisaille and medallions, or figures, is not unknown in the early part of the century, it is more common in the second half, particularly in France and England.

The movement toward humanism, partly inspired by St. Francis of Assisi and his teaching, was accompanied by a related tendency toward naturalism discernible in the visual arts in the later 13th century.

The conventional formalized foliage designs of the 12th and earlier 13th centuries gave place to more natural plant motifs of oak, vine, and maple, and these break out of the formal patterns and coil with a more organic natural movement.

In France, where surviving material is most extensive, the various regional schools are mostly a natural development of their immediate predecessors. There is no radical change in style or technique during the first quarter of the century. In western France the severe Romanesque style was softened and refined, as seen in the Saint-Vital window c. Another distinct workshop, centred at Lyon and responsible c. An important workshop in Champagne had already produced in the late 12th century the clerestory windows of Saint-Remi at Reims that foreshadowed the mature Gothic style, while later works of this atelier can be found in the clerestory windows c.

The north rose window c. The work of this atelier is extremely distinguished, with an elegance and purity of style and a knowledge of Classical art that transcend most of its contemporaries. The rose window —35 of Lausanne Cathedral in Switzerland was made by a wandering artist from Picardy, Peter of Arras, and is related in style and iconography to the Laon workshop.

The most extensive glazing program of the first half of the century was at Chartres Cathedral , a tremendous enterprise that brought together various workshops from different regions.

The stylistic interactions between the different workshops resulted, particularly in the second quarter of the century, in a more general similarity of style between the various regional workshops.

Contemporary with Chartres are the windows c. Considerable activity was also centred in the Paris area during the second quarter of the century. The major monument of the period is the Sainte-Chapelle , which was built in Paris between and Forming what amounts to a continuous wall of foot- metre- high stained glass around three sides of the chapel, it contains the most extensive narrative cycle ever produced in this medium, numbering 1, scenes in 15 windows. The only extensive remains of 13th-century glass in England are found at Canterbury Cathedral, where the 12 Theological windows were produced about and the windows relating to St.

Thomas Becket about — Lincoln Cathedral retains impressive fragments of a series of windows made between and , but it is impossible fully to appreciate either of these series without making comparison with French work. There are important similarities between Canterbury and Sens, on the one hand, and probably between Lincoln and Paris, on the other. The glaziers, however, were probably English with a close acquaintance with French models. Thirteenth-century stained glass in Germanic countries, however, was comparatively uninfluenced by French models.

It is more turbulent in design, with agitated draperies, expressive faces, and a complicated ornamented character, particularly in the backgrounds.

There were many distinct regional schools, among which Cologne was an important centre. The full-length figures of saints and the Legend of St. Kunibert at Cologne have elaborate geometrical frames around the figures and scenes that are without parallel in French art. These frames are a typical feature of German work; they occur again in later work of this school in the St. Another workshop, which produced the Jesse tree window c.

It appears that after the completion of the Erfurt windows, this workshop, or at least some of its members, went to Assisi in Italy and also to Gotland in Sweden. The most outstanding glass of the mid-century is a related series of windows in the cathedrals of Naumburg, Strasbourg, and Frankfurt. The Naumburg window of Holy Knights and Virgins can be contrasted with the delicate mannered style of Parisian court art. The earliest Italian examples of stained glass were the three windows executed by German craftsmen of the Erfurt school in the apse of the upper church at Assisi between and At the end of the 13th century, native designers and craftsmen produced windows.

The oculus window c. Stained glass of the first half of the 14th century is everywhere distinguished by an insouciant fairy tale quality and a languorous charm sometimes tinged with pathos. Regional differences, however, persisted—the gentle reserve and earthy lyricism of the English; the virtuoso painting and exquisite drolleries of the Norman-French; and the full green-, gold-, and russet-dominated palettes of the German windows.

The full flowering of the Gothic style side by side with the beginnings of stylistic developments that were to culminate in the Renaissance characterized the aesthetic nature of the early 14th century. The new movement toward the representation of volume and spatial depth, by means of modelling and perspective, had its origins in Flemish and Italian painting. That the glass painter was quickly influenced by this new style is seen, for example, in the St.

Anthony window in the lower church of S. Francesco at Assisi, Italy. North of the Alps the earliest extant manifestation of this new interest in perspective and modelling, based on Italian models, occurs in the chancel windows —30 of the Habsburg expiatory church at Königsfelden, near Brugg, Switzerland. In the Germanic lands proto-Renaissance spatial illusionism influenced the transept windows at Augsburg Cathedral and the east window c.

In the early 14th century the third dimension in canopies was still highly untheoretical and largely governed by considerations of pure design.

The practice of representing a figure beneath an architectural canopy was an established convention of the 13th century, particularly used in clerestory windows. In earlier examples the canopy plays a comparatively unimportant part in the total design, but by the end of the 13th century, although still two-dimensional, it had become more elaborate and is an important ornamental feature of the windows of Merton College, Oxford. In German and Austrian windows the canopy work is often elaborate and complex in its spatial organization; examples are found at Vienna Cathedral c.

The art of glass painting, however, did not respond equally to these new influences emanating from Italy. It subdivides itself into two groups, of which France and England together make up one, characterized by its resistance to Italian influences.

The use of perspective was purposefully restrained, so that the essential overall surface unity of the design was not violently upset, for the use of flat, patterned diaper grounds effectively counterbalanced the suggestion of spatial effect. In the first half of the century the most important work in France is found in the region of Normandy, especially in the choir windows c.

The English glaziers of this period were extremely prolific , with Oxford, Coventry, and York as important regional centres. The nave windows of York Minster were made between and and are the largest single enterprise of this period in England. It appears probable that some of the later glass at York c.

A flourishing school in western England, whose best work is found at Wells Cathedral and Eaton Bishop in Herefordshire, shows some affinity with German work. The best French and English work, however, has a lightness of colour and graphic refinement that is enhanced by an extensive use of yellow stain.

After about the geometric grisaille glass gave way to simpler diamond-shaped pieces, painted with delicate trails of foliage and leaded together to give the effect of trellis work.

It is brusque , almost harsh, contrasting strongly with the elegance of French and English work. All of these traits can be seen, for example, in the panels c. Maria-am-Gestade in Vienna; and at Erfurt Cathedral c. A particular trait of this Germanic group, of which Erfurt is a good example, is a tendency to extend a single composition across the main lights of a window, ignoring the natural divisions of the stonework.

The reason for this is partly architectural: The arts from about to about , which are frequently grouped together under the title of the International Gothic Style, belong essentially to an era of court art inspired by the patronage of kings, the nobility, and the higher orders of ecclesiastics. Surviving windows are extensive, and interactions between the various centres of patronage, complicated by family alliances and the exchange of works of art and artists, are particularly complex.

The various national and regional styles can still be distinguished in glass painting, but there is a general tendency toward a mannered, extremely sophisticated elegance of style, sometimes verging on the precious , combined with an interest in portrait realism. If the genius of the 13th-century stained glass lay in its epic sense of monumentality and that of the early 14th century in its warmth of human feeling, that of the late 14th and early 15th centuries is far more difficult to characterize in a phrase.

The style of glass painting became at once more corporeal and more introspective. Figures are rendered with far more attention to individual human traits yet are akin in their majesty to the great prophets in the 13th-century windows. The glass painting of this period is of high quality.

One of the most ambitious works of the period is the great east window of York Minster, made between and by John Thornton of Coventry. In Austria an important atelier associated with the court produced the window c. Erhard in der Breitenau and later the series of windows c. Germany contains a large amount of work of this period. At Erfurt Cathedral the window given by Johann von Tiefengruben c. The series of windows at Rothenburg, which were probably made about , should be noted, together with the cycle of windows c.

The period — saw not only the decline of the Gothic style and the establishment of the new Renaissance style but also the beginning of the transformation of the art of glass painting from a significant means of artistic expression into a hybrid art form: The International Gothic Style continued to influence glass painting during the first half of the 15th century but to a lesser degree.

Its mannered elegance and extravagant costumes can still be seen in France in the two rose windows c. In England this aesthetic is continued in the east window c. The work of Germanic glass painters provides outstanding examples, particularly the window after from St. Lambrecht, now in the museum at Graz, Austria, and the charming Alsatian window of St.

There were, however, important new influences affecting the styles of glass painting. In northern Europe during the first half of the 15th century a flourishing school of painting emerged in Flanders. Although the origin of the Flemish style is partly to be found in the International Gothic, a more realistic manner of representation and a detailed awareness of actuality developed that is almost the antithesis of the mannered sophistication and the essentially unrealistic world of that style. It was impossible for the glass painter to participate fully in the new realism.

Glass is a translucent material; the passage of light through it is alone sufficient to create a feeling of unreality. Furthermore, although the panel or mural painter could use the new discoveries of linear perspective to heighten the sense of reality, the glass painter had to contend with the presence of the leading line, which emphasizes the surface plane. This creates a tension and a sense of ambiguity between the actual surface and the illusion of depth. Attempts were made to resolve the problems, but with little success; one result was that the lead line became increasingly divorced from the design instead of being an integral part of it.

The increasing use, from the midth century onward, of vitreous enamel pigments had the effect of accelerating this process. The full flowering of the Renaissance style in Italy and the intense interest in Classical art that it stimulated resulted, about , in a profusion of ornamental details, borrowed from the formal language of Classical art, in contemporary window designs. In addition the glaziers at this time often drew inspiration from contemporary engravings, particularly those of Albrecht Dürer.

The period — saw no decline in demand for stained glass. One of the most productive and influential areas at this time was Flanders. The six windows c. Gommaire at Lier and the Virgin window c. English stained glass in the 15th century becomes more intimate , more anecdotal. It is less a cathedral art than an art of parish churches and is addressed less to an assembled ecclesia than to the individual believer.

At its best it achieves a quiet intensity in the woodcut-like figures in East Harling church Norfolk , a pathos in the Long Melford church Suffolk Pieta , and a sheer power of expression in the Clavering church Essex Martyrdom of St. The trading and political links between Flanders and England in the second half of the 15th century encouraged the influx of Flemish works of art and artists into England.

A number of Flemish glaziers established themselves in Southwark, London, and some even assumed English names. The early 16th century was marked by a series of disputes between the London Guild of Glaziers and the foreigners.

The latter were particularly patronized by the court and the more wealthy merchants. The two outstanding monuments of this imported style are the windows c. The spread of the new realism can be traced in French glass painting. The interactions with Flemish glaziers can be seen, for example, in the realism of the windows c. Native French glaziers were extremely prolific at this time, and Normandy and particularly the city of Rouen contain an incomparable display of windows produced by a large number of distinctive workshops.

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