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The Royalist army soon crossed the river and progressed as far as Granville , in Normandy , in November. The city was defended by 4, Republican soldiers, whereas the Royalists were at least 20,, but weakened by successive fights and deceases. The Siege of Angers occurred on 3 and 4 December The Royalists' bad tactics, as well as the strength of Angers city wall and castle, caused their loss. They consequently went back north for a while, around Le Mans , before crossing the Loire at Ancenis on 16 December.

In , fierce repression was conducted in the whole region against the Royalists. In Angers, prisoners were shot and died of illness in jail. Between 19 and 31 May , between and Republican families sought asylum in Angers. During the 19th century, the city was deeply influenced by the urban transformations in Paris. The city traditionally had a somewhat sombre appearance from the quantity of local slate used in construction but many quarters were gradually destroyed, redeveloped, or rebuilt on the Parisian model.

New districts of the city were also opened up on the opposite bank of the river. In , the Angers- Saumur railway was built; it was extended to Nantes two years later. When completed, the line connected Paris to the Atlantic coast. The disaster inhibited the construction of suspension bridges in France for two decades. The accident was mainly caused by soldiers' lilting march which created resonance in the bridge structure. In , a "free faculty" was created.

It was soon assimilated to the medieval Angevin University Universitas Andegavensis , which had been dissolved during the French Revolution. However, in , a law prohibited private institutions of higher education from calling themselves "universities".

At the beginning of the 20th century, two higher education establishments, specializing in agriculture and commercial sciences, were opened.

In September , when Poland was invaded by Germany, the Polish government-in-exile settled in Angers. It left the city on 12 June , after the invasion of France by the Wehrmacht. Angers fell to the Nazis during the same month.

The Germans made it the seat of a regional Kommandantur. In , a first Resistance movement, called Honneur et Patrie , was created in Angers. On the night of 28 May , the first Allied bombing occurred over the Saint-Laud quarter. Successive attacks on 29 and 30 May destroyed the train station and its surroundings [34] which were reconstructed in the s.

To seize Angers, they decided to enter the city by its eastern side to surprise the Nazis. On 9 August, they crossed the Maine and started the fight. Helped by the local French Forces of the Interior , they progressively moved forward to the city center. The fight was nevertheless difficult and Angers was liberated the day after, at around 5 p. After the end of the war, the city experienced quick development and demographic growth.

Angers continues to have two different universities. Until the s, Angers experienced several massive urban development plans, such as the construction of the Lac de Maine, and several vast council estates and shopping malls, as well as the construction of a highway which crossed the city through its center, a project that forced the destruction of many old buildings and destroyed the original quays on the Maine.

Later, other urban plans were drawn up, with a new emphasis on nature and heritage protection, as well as on social mixing. During the s, the redevelopment of the Saint-Serge quarter, located just north of the historical center, produced a new business center, gardens and university buildings. Angers received its communal charter from Louis XI of France in February , but free elections for the mayor and aldermen were not guaranteed before , following a decision by Charles VIII.

Since then, 75 successive mayors have governed Angers. Angers was until the Second World War mainly governed by centrist and republican mayors. Since , all the successive mayors have been members of the Socialist Party , whereas the Maine-et-Loire department has always been governed by moderate right-wing parties. Angers is divided into eight cantons ; most of them include parts of Angers plus some surrounding communes. These cantons are not administrative entities and only serve to elect the members of the department council.

Depending on their social and economic issues, some of them can have priority for financial assistance and urban regeneration. In Angers, five are considered as priority sectors, three as sensitive urban areas, and one as an urban free zone.

Being the chef-lieu of Maine-et-Loire , Angers is the seat of a prefecture. It is also the seat of an Court of Appeal and of several regional or local institutes, concerning for example, customs, education or science.

Angers also has several other courts of justice as well as a prison. In , Angers had , inhabitants, 0. Censuses have been conducted since In , the urban area, which encompasses Angers plus nine surrounding communes The early prosperity of the town was largely due to the nearby quarries of slate , whose abundant use for the roofs of Angers led to its sobriquet as the "Black City". In the midth century, the principal manufactures were goods for sailing ships sailcloth and rope , linen and hose , sugar , leather , wax , and oil , as well as agricultural products mainly wheat , wine , and fruit.

The work for sailing ships was still carried on but steamships had greatly reduced demand. Instead, local companies produced cables , wires , and thread and increased production of footwear , umbrellas , and parasols. The area's vineyards focused on sparkling wine and fruit was increasingly preserved for sale elsewhere.

The area had also developed a small-scale textile industry and begun producing machines, as well as commercial-scale production of hemp and flowers.

Present-day Angers provides It is the 22nd-largest national job provider and the 3rd-largest one in northwestern France after Nantes and Rennes. Its unemployment rate 9. It also supports research labs investigating horticulture and biotechnology. Thanks to its several higher education schools, laboratories, and various offices, Angers is the largest horticultural center in Europe [47] and, as the home of the Community Plant Variety Office , Angers is the hub of the plant breeders' rights system in the European Community.

For example, Angers is the leading hydrangeas producer in Europe. There are also many small firms, chiefly focused on the agricultural tradition of Maine-et-Loire.

The new convention center slated for has been cancelled in It has 1, beds and around 5, people work there. A center of learning, Angers boasts two renowned universities and several specialized institutions, altogether enrolling more than 26, students. The town is also home to a state university, the University of Angers , best university in France in for success rates. Its education and research institutes are the driving force behind the city's science and technology industries.

Formerly part of the UCO, the school's Master's program is of a duration of five years. In addition to French schools and universities, an American university, St. Edward's University , has a new expanding campus in Angers. Edward's University is a diverse, Catholic liberal arts institution from Austin, Texas.

The university has a partnership with UCO, and offers a variety of courses of undergraduate level and professional training. National roads connect the city with Rennes , Caen and Laval. Before the construction of bypasses during the s, the A11 crossed the city center, following the river Maine, and passed just below the castle. Causing air pollution and noise and disfiguring the Maine quays, the portions of the former highway which are still in place should be redeveloped in the coming years.

Angers inaugurated the new Irigo [56] tram system on 25 June Service is provided by Keolis using 17 Alstom Citadis trams. A second line is scheduled for — Besides the tram, Irigo also organizes the bus network in Angers consisting of 13 urban lines and 12 suburban lines.

The bus station, situated outside the Angers Saint-Laud train station, is a hub for the departmental bus network Anjoubus and is also served by international bus companies. Angers is on both the Nantes - Paris and Nantes - Lyon railways.

The city has several train stations, all originally built in the 19th century. Some are still in use; others are closed or reserved for freight. The nearest airport is Angers - Loire Airport , which replaced in an older airport near the Saint-Aubin island. It can receive 50, passengers per year. Its site has been occupied since antiquity; the castle itself was built between and by Louis IX of France.

The massive walls are about one kilometer long and punctuated by 17 towers; they were built with horizontal slices of tuff and schist , giving it strength and an original striped look. The Maison d'Adam "Adam's House" , located behind the cathedral, is an excellent example of the half-timbered houses which were built during the Middle Ages. Many similar houses, although smaller, are also visible along the streets around the castle.

Totally refurbished in , it is now a testimony to s architecture. The construction of the current building started during the 12th century on the remains of an older sanctuary.

The original structure, romanesque , received gothic columns and vaults in the middle of the 12th century, giving birth to the Angevin gothic , a style that quickly spread in Western France and the Angevin possessions in Italy. The twin spires were built in and The neighbouring Palais du Tau , the former episcopal palace, dates from the 12th century.

The skyline is also marked by the Tour Saint-Aubin. Completed in , it was the bell-tower of an abbey closed during the French Revolution and destroyed in Elaborately sculptured 11th and 12th century arcades also survive in the courtyard of the Prefecture.

The museum also contains a graphic design studio, a gallery devoted to the history of Angers and a temporary exhibition gallery.

Inside the castle , a special gallery displays the Apocalypse Tapestry , ordered by Louis I of Naples at the end of the 14th century. Inspired by manuscript miniatures , the successive scenes, designed by Jean Bondol , illustrate the Apocalypse of St John.

It exhibits a large collection of mounted animals and fossils, divided in three departments, one for zoology , one for botany and the last one for paleontology and geology.

Located in the Abbaye Toussaint , the Galerie David d'Angers gathers sculptures, reliefs, and medallions by David d'Angers , a 19th-century sculptor born in the city. Angers also enjoys a Maison de l'Architecture , which organizes various exhibitions and workshops, as well as several temporary exhibition galleries distributed in the city center.

Outside the commune limits are also an aviation museum and a museum of communications. The existing building was completed in and its auditorium contains six stalls and four balconies, totaling seats.

The Orchestre National des Pays de la Loire , shared with Nantes , usually performs at the Congress Center, built in , with a capacity of 1, seats. The Chabada , a popular concert hall, is the cradle of the Angevin contemporary scene and several groups and performers were discovered there, Les Thugs , a punk band formed in , being the first ones. The Premiers Plans festival, dedicated to European first films and meant to help new directors meet their audience, is conducted every year and lasts one week.

The films are screened in three small cinemas, while two big generalist multiplexes also exist in Angers. The national French channel France 3 , however, still presents local news in its programs. The city is also the home of two local stations, Radio Campus and Radio G! Ouest-France and Le Courrier de l'Ouest are the two local newspapers, the last one having its headquarters in Angers.

Angers has many sport teams playing at top levels. Angers SCO is Angers's football team. The club was created in and returned to Ligue 1 French top league in after 21 years. Les Ducs d'Angers is Angers's ice hockey team. The club plays in the Magnus League first division. Anjou BC is Angers's basketball team , playing in second division. Vaillante Angers is Angers's table tennis team playing in top division Pro A since the season. Angers also acts as home to the Angers Aviron Nautique, a rowing club which actively competes in regattas across France.

Jean-Bouin Stadium is the main sports venue which can hold 18, people. The city also has a variety of sports halls, tennis courts, swimming pools, shooting and archery stands, a velodrome, a rowing center, an ice rink and a fencing hall. Angers is twinned with:.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Angers disambiguation. Un entretien pourrait se conclure, en particulier, par un avantage financier.

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