About This Home
However, in such a case, at the petition of the defendant, the claimant must remove the action, at his choice, to one of the jurisdictions referred to in paragraph 1 of this article for the determination of the claim, but before such removal the defendant must furnish security sufficient to ensure payment of any judgement that may subsequently be awarded to the claimant in the action. No judicial proceedings relating to carriage of goods under this Convention may be instituted in a place not specified in paragraph 1 or 2 of this article.
The provisions of this paragraph do not constitute an obstacle to the jurisdiction of the Contracting States for provisional or protective measures. Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding paragraphs, an agreement made by the parties, after a claim under the contract of carriage by sea has arisen, which designates the place where the claimant may institute an actions, is effective. Subject to the provisions of this article, parties may provide by agreement evidenced in writing that any dispute that may arise relating to carriage of goods under this Convention shall be referred to arbitration.
Where a charter-party contains a provision that disputes arising thereunder shall be referred to arbitration and a bill of lading issued pursuant to the charter-party does not contain special annotation providing that such provision shall be binding upon the holder of the bill of lading, the carrier may not invoke such provision as against a holder having acquired the bill of lading in good faith.
The arbitration proceedings shall, at the option of the claimant, be instituted at one of the following places: The arbitrator or arbitration tribunal shall apply the rules of this Convention. The provisions of paragraphs 2 and 4 of this article are deemed to be part of every arbitration clause or agreement, and any term of such clause or agreement which is inconsistent therewith is null and void. Nothing in this article affects the validity of an agreement relating to arbitration made by the parties after the claim under the contract of carriage by sea has arisen.
Any stipulation in a contract of carriage by sea, in a bill of lading, or in any other document evidencing the contract of carriage by sea is null and void to the extent that it derogates, directly or indirectly, from the provisions of this Convention.
The nullity of such a stipulation does not affect the validity of the other provisions of the contract or document of which it forms a part. A clause assigning benefit of insurance of goods in favour of the carrier, or any similar clause, is null and void. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 of this article, a carrier may increase his responsibilities and obligations under this Convention.
Where a bill of lading or any other document evidencing the contract of carriage by sea is issued, it must contain a statement that the carriage is subject to the provisions of this Convention which nullify any stipulation derogating therefrom to the detriment of the shipper or the consignee. Where the claimant in respect of the goods has incurred loss as a result of a stipulation which is null and void by virtue of the present article, or as a result of the omission of the statement referred to in paragraph 3 of this article, the carrier must pay compensation to the extent required in order to give the claimant compensation in accordance with the provisions of this Convention for any loss of or damage to the goods as well as for delay in delivery.
The carrier must, in addition, pay compensation for costs incurred by the claimant for the purpose of exercising his right, provided that costs incurred in the action where the foregoing provision is invoked are to be determined in accordance with the law of the State where proceedings are instituted. Nothing in this Convention shall prevent the application of provisions in the contract of carriage by sea or national law regarding the adjustment of general average. With the exception of article 20, the provisions of this Convention relating to the liability of the carrier for loss of or damage to the goods also determine whether the consignee may refuse contribution in general average and the liability of the carrier to indemnify the consignee in respect of any such contribution made or any salvage paid.
This Convention does not modify the rights or duties of the carrier, the actual carrier and their servants and agents provided for in international conventions or national law relating to the limitation of liability of owners of seagoing ships. The provisions of articles 21 and 22 of this Convention do not prevent the application of the mandatory provisions of any other multilateral convention already in force at the date of this Convention relating to matters dealt with in the said articles, provided that the dispute arises exclusively between parties having their principal place of business in States members of such other convention.
However, this paragraph does not affect the application of paragraph 4 of article 22 of this Convention. No liability shall arise under the provisions of this Convention for damage caused by a nuclear incident if the operator of a nuclear installation is liable for such damage: No liability shall arise under the provisions of this Convention for any loss of or damage to or delay in delivery of luggage for which the carrier is responsible under any international convention or national law relating to the carriage of passengers and their luggage by sea.
Nothing contained in this Convention prevents a Contracting State from applying any other international convention which is already in force at the date of this Convention and which applies mandatorily to contracts of carriage of goods primarily by a mode of transport other than transport by sea. This provision also applies to any subsequent revision or amendment of such international convention.
Unit of account 1. The unit of account referred to in article 6 of this Convention is the special drawing right as defined by the International Monetary Fund. The amounts mentioned in article 6 are to be converted into the national currency of a State according to the value of such currency at the date of judgement or the date agreed upon by the parties. The value of a national currency, in terms of the special drawing right, of a Contracting State which is a member of the International Monetary Fund is to be calculated in accordance with the method of valuation applied by the International Monetary Fund in effect at the date in question for its operations and transactions.
The value of a national currency, in terms of the special drawing right, of a Contracting State which is not a member of the International Monetary Fund is to be calculated in a manner determined by that State. Nevertheless, those States which are not members of the International Monetary Fund and whose law does not permit the application of the provisions of paragraph 1 of this article may, at the time of signature, or at the time of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession or at any time thereafter, declare that the limits of liability provided for in this Convention to be applied in their territories shall be fixed as 12, monetary units per package or other shipping unit or The monetary unit referred to in paragraph 2 of this article corresponds to sixty-five and a half milligrams of gold of millesimal fineness nine hundred.
The conversion of the amounts referred to in paragraph 2 into the national currency is to be made according to the law of the State concerned. The calculation mentioned in the last sentence of paragraph 1 and the conversion mentioned in paragraph 3 of this article is to be made in such a manner as to express in the national currency of the Contracting State as far as possible the same real value for the amounts in article 6 as is expressed there in units of account.
Contracting States must communicate to the depositary the manner of calculation pursuant to paragraph 1 of this article, or the result of the conversion mentioned in paragraph 3 of this article, as the case may be, at the time of signature or when depositing their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, or when availing themselves of the option provided for in paragraph 2 of this article and whenever there is a change in the manner of such calculation or in the result of such conversion.
Signature, Ratification, Acceptance, Approval, Accession 1. This Convention is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by the signatory States. After 30 April , this Convention will be open for accession by all States which are not signatory States. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval and accession are to be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Reservations No reservations may be made to this Convention. Entry into force 1. This Convention enters into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of one year from the date of deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
For each State which becomes a Contracting State to this Convention after the date of the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, this Convention enters into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of one year after the deposit of the appropriate instrument on behalf of that State.
Each Contracting State shall apply the provisions of this Convention to contracts of carriage by sea concluded on or after the date of the entry into force of this Convention in respect of that State. Denunciation of other conventions 1. Upon becoming a Contracting State to this Convention, any State Party to the International Convention for the Unification of certain Rules relating to Bills of Lading signed at Brussels on 25 August Convention must notify the Government of Belgium as the depositary of the Convention of its denunciation of the said Convention with a declaration that the denunciation is to take effect as from the date when this Convention enters into force in respect of that State.
Upon the entry into force of this Convention under paragraph 1 of article 30, the depositary of this Convention must notify the Government of Belgium as the depositary of the Convention of the date of such entry into force, and of the names of the Contracting States in respect of which the Convention has entered into force.
The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article apply correspondingly in respect of States Parties to the Protocol signed on 23 February to amend the International Convention for the Unification of certain Rules relating to Bills of Lading signed at Brussels on 25 August Notwithstanding article 2 of this Convention, for the purposes of paragraph 1 of this article, a Contracting State may, if it deems it desirable, defer the denunciation of the Convention and of the Convention as modified by the Protocol for a maximum period of five years from the entry into force of this Convention.
It will then notify the Government of Belgium of its intention. During this transitory period, it must apply to the Contracting States this Convention to the exclusion of any other one. Revision and amendment 1. At the request of not less than one third of the Contracting States to this Convention, the depositary shall convene a conference of the Contracting States for revising or amending it. Any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession deposited after the entry into force of an amendment to this Convention is deemed to apply to the Convention as amended.
Revision of the limitation amounts and unit of account or monetary unit 1. Notwithstanding the provisions of article 32, a conference only for the purpose of altering the amount specified in article 6 and paragraph 2 of article 26, or of substituting either or both of the units defined in paragraphs 1 and 3 of article 26 by other units is to be convened by the depositary in accordance with paragraph 2 of this article.
Find all posts by Avril. Douglas Flat, CA Posts: Find all posts by Mr. Originally Posted by BoKu It's a two-seater. Find all posts by Stan The Man. Are production rumors realistic? Multiple sources say production would be limited, and the price is not yet known. That sparse interior doesn't allow for many creature comforts. Autoblog notes, "Safety features like airbags, anti-lock brakes and stability control aren't lacking, but convenience items like air conditioning may be optional.
Find all posts by Dactyl. Originally Posted by BoKu The full-resolution photos in that article show that I was wrong about the VW logo and license plates being photoshopped in. Originally Posted by Dactyl How are we defining better? Visit Broken Sword's homepage! If it can fly, I want one. Visit Brad from Georgia's homepage! Find all posts by Mad Jay. Find all posts by Chloe. Find all posts by tribrats. Yorba Linda, CA Posts: Find all posts by Debunker.
Originally Posted by Debunker Is there a motorcycle or moped that gets as much as mpg? Originally Posted by tribrats And here I thought motorcycles could be tricky to see. A planned raid on 31 July was cancelled due to thunderstorms over the UK.
Operation Gomorrah killed 42, people, left 37, wounded and caused some one million German civilians to flee the city.
No subsequent city raid shook Germany as did that on Hamburg; documents show that German officials were thoroughly alarmed and there is some indication from later Allied interrogations of Nazi officials that Hitler stated that further raids of similar weight would force Germany out of the war.
The industrial losses were severe: Hamburg never recovered to full production, only doing so in essential armaments industries in which maximum effort was made. Other losses included damage to or destruction of industrial concerns and armaments works, of which were important enough to be listed by name.
Local transport systems were completely disrupted and did not return to normal for some time. Dwellings destroyed amounted to , out of , In total, the RAF dropped 22, long tons of bombs on Hamburg. The totally destroyed quarter of Hammerbrook , in which mostly port workers lived, was not rebuilt as a housing area but as a commercial area. The adjoining quarter of Rothenburgsort shared the same fate, as only a small area of housing was rebuilt. The underground line which connected these areas with the central station was not rebuilt either.
In the destroyed residential areas many houses were rebuilt across the street and therefore do not form connected blocks anymore. The hills of the Öjendorfer Park are formed by the debris of destroyed houses. In January , Major Cortez F. He estimated that more than 40, people died in Hamburg.
Memorial to the victims of the Hamburg bombings on Hamburger Strasse. Memorial Passage over the Styx at the Ohlsdorf Cemetery. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. World War II allied bombing raids against Hamburg.
Part of a series on the. Hamburg Ravensbrück trials North Sea flood Hamburg cell Political and economic history. Port history — Constitutional history — Diplomatic history — Postal history — This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. However the raid must have been planned more than 24 hours in advance, so although these raids are often stated to be revenge attacks, it is unlikely that they were planned to be so. Monthly from September, , to May, ". Retrieved 10 September World War II city bombing.
Area bombardment Aerial bombing of cities Firestorm Strategic bombing V-weapons. Bomber Command Into the Storm. Retrieved from " https: All articles lacking reliable references Articles lacking reliable references from September Articles with short description Use dmy dates from February Articles needing additional references from July All articles needing additional references All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from April Articles with unsourced statements from September Articles with incomplete citations from September All articles with incomplete citations CS1 errors: Views Read Edit View history.
Political and economic history Port history — Constitutional history — Diplomatic history — Postal history — Hampdens attacked oil refineries near Hamburg.
Hamburg oil refineries were bombed.