International aufgestellt - weltweit vernetzt
In , the NSW Department of Railways added six four-wheel streamlined rail buses to serve on small branch lines in Cowra and Harden that did not have enough passengers to justify a rail motor. When the railbus service wasn't popular, several of the buses became mobile pay cars used to pay railway employees at stations and working on tracks. In December , one of these railbuses FP 5 was destroyed when dynamite was placed on railway tracks near Yanderra. The three-man crew of the railbus were killed in the explosion.
No one was prosecuted for the offence. In Queensland , Australia , " RailBus service " refers to the road bus service running parallel to portions of some railway lines, substituting for commuter train. In the Czech Republic and Slovakia , railbuses are used on less frequented rural lines. In Germany, the Schienenbus was developed in the s to fulfill the need for an inexpensive rail vehicle.
After the Second World War , the eventually ubiquitous Uerdingen railbuses were developed by Deutsche Bundesbahn in single-engined and double-engined versions. The latter were powerful enough to haul through coaches and freight cars.
Matching trailers and driving trailers were developed as well. These railbuses were a predecessor of the modern diesel multiple units. A number of serious accidents in Germany in the late s involving railbuses resulted in the specification and development of larger, more robustly designed diesel railcars.
Although these cars were more similar in size to the U. The DB Class exemplifies the contemporary German diesel railcar. This type of car replaced the Schienenbus and locomotive-hauled train consists where possible on branch-line and main-line assignments during the s and s.
Both the Uerdingen Schienenbus and the Bautzen railbuses have virtually disappeared from regular revenue service, but its diesel rail car successors are still widely used.
DMUs of a third generation in succession after the Schienenbus are now being ordered by the hundreds in a variety of modular design combinations. Indian Railways operates many railbuses on its branch lines. They are mostly electric. These railbuses are being replaced by EMUs due to increase in passengers.
JNR subsequently drew up a plan for railbus introduction plan in JNR, and a prototype was built in However, JNR found railbuses less reliable in daily operation as compared to standard rail equipment and discontinued their use in the s. One railbus produced by Fuji Heavy Industries was operational on a minor line until the company withdrew the line from service.
Motorization soared in Japan from the s on, reducing consuming passenger numbers on local private railway. He next hoped to invade a traditional enemy, Great Britain, against whom France had fought the Hundred Years War — , but he soon realized he lacked the strength for a successful cross-channel invasion. Napoleon won several victories on land against the Turks, who controlled Egypt at the time, but his fleet suffered a severe defeat off Alexandria at the hands of British admiral Horatio Nelson.
Leaving most of his army behind, Napoleon returned to France and joined in an uprising against the ruling Directory. Following the coup of November 9, , he became first consul and was virtually the ruler of France. To solidify his power, he rewrote the French Constitution in , making himself consul for life; two years later he again fiddled with the constitution to declare himself emperor.
He improved transportation through a program of bridge- and canal-building and reformed the education system. He established leading universities and the Bank of France. In the meantime, he used a strict conscription system to raise a powerful army and again invaded Austria in , winning a victory on the Marengo Plain in northern Italy; this time, the peace terms recognized the Rhine River as the eastern border of France.
His belligerence led to war with Britain in , and two years later Russia and Austria allied with the British against him. To fund his wars, he sold , square miles of French territory on the North American continent to the young United States of America, an event known in the US as the Louisiana Purchase. Between and he conducted a brilliant campaign marked by rapid maneuvering and violent attacks. These treaties made France and Russia allies and essentially split the European continent between the two.
Napoleon used his control of European ports to institute a blockade, excluding British trade from the continent, a situation known as the Continental System. His desire for complete blockade led Napoleon to occupy Portugal in and Spain in , but Spanish and Portuguese troops aided by the British fought a determined resistance.
Known as the Peninsular War , it would tie down , French soldiers between and During the years following the Treaties of Tilsit, Napoleon implemented throughout his European holdings a legal system known as the Napoleonic Code that did much to standardize laws. It guaranteed freedom of religion, abolished serfdom and established free schools for all citizens.
On June 24, , Napoleon led an army of ,— le Grand Armee , the largest in the history of Europe up to that time—in an invasion of Russia. Unable to defeat such a force, the Russians fell back and adopted a scorched earth policy, burning buildings, crops, orchards and anything else that could be of use to the French. Napoleon finally engaged the Russians at Borodino in September, an inconclusive battle with high casualties on both sides.
On September 15, the French army entered the Russian capital of Moscow, but it was a Pyrrhic victory: For over a month, Napoleon waited for his erstwhile partner to capitulate, but a bitter winter and no means of feeding his troops forced him to abandon Moscow.
Freezing weather, starvation, desertion, harassing attacks by Cossacks, and a bloody battle at the Berezina River on November 27 reduced le Grand Armee from , to less than , The emperor returned to Paris to strengthen his forces there, but the disaster in Russia and the continuing war in Spain and Portugal had emboldened his enemies.
The emperor gathered his veterans and conscripted new recruits. Initially, he claimed victories at Lutzen and Bautzen and forced a peace that bought him time to raise additional troops, but in August Austria officially joined the coalition, tipping the balance. At the three-day Battle of Leipzig in October, the largest battle of the Napoleonic Wars, the coalition dealt Napoleon a devastating defeat.
Ultimately he was forced back behind the Rhine, and an invasion of France was imminent. While he was raising a new army, Austria, Britain, Prussia and Russia agreed to a new coalition to oppose him. Knowing he would soon be vastly outnumbered, Napoleon chose to strike quickly into Belgium where he hoped to inject his army between an Anglo-Dutch force under his old enemy in Spain, the Duke of Wellington, and a Prussian Army under Field Marshal Prince Gebhard von Blücher and defeat each force separately.
In this campaign, however, the French emperor would not have the assistance of his exceptional former chief of staff, Louis Alexandre Berthier, who chose not to rejoin his old commander and instead personally escorted King Louis XVIII to safety. Jean, south of the village of Waterloo , Belgium, on June 18, The battered, outnumbered French army retreated back into France. Napoleon abdicated a second time and was carried into exile on a British ship to the island of St.
Helena in the South Atlantic. He died there May 5, , at the age of Claims arose that he had been gradually poisoned with arsenic, but most likely he died of stomach cancer, which also killed his father and sister Pauline.
His remains were not returned to France until when he was interred at Les Invalides in Paris. Irene Sgambelluri was eleven years old, and living in Guam, when Japanese forces assaulted the area hours after bombing Pearl Harbor on Dec. Sgambelluri spoke with HistoryNet about the attack and the aftermath.
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