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The following steps show how to disable the comma. The following discussion shows how to read the minimum, maximum, average, and reading count. To read the minimum, maximum, average, and count, use the MATH menu.
Enables single trigger and triggers the multimeter. Toggles between auto trigger and reading hold. Auto triggering is enabled when you turn on the multimeter. When a stable reading is detected, the multimeter emits a beep and holds the value on the display. The following steps demonstrate how to store readings and retrieve them. Select any measurement function. The first reading displayed is the first reading that was stored FIFO.
Features and Functions You will find that this chapter makes it easy to look up all the details about a particular feature of the multimeter. Whether you are operating the multimeter from the front panel or from the remote interface, this chapter will be useful. Chapter 3 Features and Functions Measurement Configuration Measurement Configuration This section contains information to help you configure the multimeter for making measurements. You may never have to change any of the measurement parameters discussed here, but they are provided to give you the flexibility you might need.
Chapter 3 Features and Functions Measurement Configuration Continuity Threshold Resistance When measuring continuity, the multimeter emits a continuous tone if the measured resistance is less than the threshold resistance. You can set the threshold to any value between 1 The threshold resistance is adjustable only from the front panel. The threshold resistance is stored in non-volatile memory, and does not change when power has been off or after a remote interface reset. To reduce the effects of measurement loading errors, you can set the input resistance to greater than 10 G for the mVdc, 1 Vdc, and 10 Vdc ranges.
Chapter 3 Features and Functions Measurement Configuration Resolution Resolution is expressed in terms of number of digits the multimeter can measure or display. To increase measurement accuracy and improve noise rejection, select 6 measurement speed, select 4 Applies to all measurement functions.
Chapter 3 Features and Functions Measurement Configuration 5 digits Select either the slow or fast mode for each resolution setting. The default mode is 5 digits slow.
You can set the resolution using the following commands. Integration time affects the measurement resolution for better resolution, use a longer integration time , and measurement speed for faster measurements, use a shorter integration time.
Integration time is set indirectly when you select the number of digits. See the table for resolution on page Chapter 3 Features and Functions Measurement Configuration Autozero When autozero is enabled default , the multimeter internally disconnects the input signal following each measurement, and takes a zero reading. It then subtracts the zero reading from the preceding reading.
Chapter 3 Features and Functions Measurement Configuration Ranging You can let the multimeter automatically select the range using autoranging or you can select a fixed range using manual ranging. Autoranging is convenient because the multimeter automatically selects the appropriate range for each measurement. However, you can use manual ranging for faster measurements since the multimeter does not have to determine which range to use for each measurement.
Use the front-panel autoranging or manual ranging. You can set the range using any of the following commands. Chapter 3 Features and Functions Math Operations Math Operations There are five math operations available, only one of which can be enabled at a time. Each math operation performs a mathematical operation on each reading or stores data on a series of readings.
The selected math operation remains in effect until you disable it, change functions, turn off the power, or perform a remote interface reset. Chapter 3 Features and Functions Math Operations Min—Max Operation The min-max operation stores the minimum and maximum readings during a series of measurements.
The multimeter then calculates the average of all readings and records the number of readings taken since min-max was enabled.
You can use the following commands to make min-max measurements. A new command is available starting with firmware Revision 2 which allows you to take readings using INITiate without storing them in internal memory. There are two ways you can specify the null value. First, you can enter a continued specific number into the register from the front-panel menu or from the remote interface.
Chapter 3 Features and Functions Math Operations dB Measurements Each dB measurement is the difference between the input signal and a stored relative value, with both values converted to dBm. You can use the following commands to make dB measurements. Math must be enabled before you can store a value to the Relative Register. Applies to all measurement functions, except continuity and diode tests.
You can use the following commands for limit testing. Normally, the multimeter will take one reading each time it receives a trigger, but you can specify multiple readings up to 50, per trigger. Chapter 3 Features and Functions Triggering Trigger Source Choices You must specify the source from which the multimeter will accept a trigger.
From the front panel, the multimeter will accept a single trigger, a hardware trigger from the Ext Trig terminal, or continuously take readings using auto trigger. Chapter 3 Features and Functions Triggering External Triggering In the external trigger mode, the multimeter will accept a hardware trigger applied to the Ext Trig terminal. The multimeter takes one reading, or the specified number of readings sample count , each time Ext Trig receives a low-true pulse.
Chapter 3 Features and Functions Triggering Internal Triggering In the internal trigger mode remote interface only , the trigger signal is always present. When you place the multimeter in the wait-for-trigger state, the trigger is issued immediately. This is the power-on trigger source for remote interface operation. To select the internal trigger source, send the following command. Chapter 3 Features and Functions Triggering The Wait-for-Trigger State After you have configured the multimeter and selected a trigger source, you must place the multimeter in the wait-for-trigger state.
A trigger will not be accepted until the multimeter is in this state. Chapter 3 Features and Functions Triggering Number of Samples Normally, the multimeter takes one reading or sample each time it receives a trigger from the selected trigger source if the multimeter is in the wait-for-trigger state.
You can, however, instruct the multimeter to take multiple readings for each trigger received. You can, however, instruct the multimeter to accept multiple triggers. This feature is available only from the remote interface. If you set the trigger count and then go to local front panel , the multimeter ignores the trigger count setting; Chapter 3 Features and Functions Triggering Trigger Delay You can insert a delay between the trigger signal and each sample that follows.
This may be useful in applications where you want to allow the input to settle before taking a reading, or for pacing a burst of readings. If you do not specify a trigger delay, the multimeter automatically selects a delay for you. Press then press Menu Enter. Chapter 3 Features and Functions Triggering Automatic Trigger Delays If you do not specify a trigger delay, the multimeter selects an automatic delay for you.
The delay is determined by function, range, integration time, and ac filter setting. Chapter 3 Features and Functions Triggering Reading Hold The reading hold feature allows you to capture and hold a stable reading on the front-panel display.
This is especially useful in situations where you want to take a reading, remove the test probes, and have the reading remain on the display. Chapter 3 Features and Functions Triggering Voltmeter Complete Terminal The rear-panel VM Comp voltmeter complete terminal provides a low-true pulse after the completion of each measurement. Voltmeter complete and external trigger see below implement a standard hardware handshake sequence between measurement and switching devices.
External Trigger Terminal You can trigger the multimeter by applying a low-true pulse to the rear-panel Ext Trig external trigger terminal. Chapter 3 Features and Functions System-Related Operations System-Related Operations This section gives information on topics such as reading memory, errors, self-test, and front-panel display control. This information is not directly related to making measurements but is an important part of operating the multimeter.
This limited test assures you that the multimeter is operational. This self-test does not perform the extensive set of analog tests that are included as part of the complete self-test described below. A complete self-test runs a series of tests and takes approximately 15 seconds to execute.
Chapter 3 Features and Functions System-Related Operations Display Control To speed up your measurement rate, or for security reasons, you may want to turn off the front-panel display.
From the remote interface, you can also display a character message on the front panel. When the display is turned off, readings are not sent to the display and all display annunciators except Front-panel operation is otherwise unaffected by turning off the display.
Chapter 3 Features and Functions System-Related Operations Beeper Control Normally, the multimeter will emit a tone whenever certain conditions are met from the front panel. For example, the multimeter will beep when a stable reading is captured in reading hold.
You may want to disable the front-panel beeper for certain applications. Be sure to dimension a string variable with at least 35 characters. Only one interface can be enabled at a time. The baud rate can be set only from the front-panel. Select one of the following: Chapter 3 Features and Functions Remote Interface Configuration Programming Language Selection You can select one of three languages to program the multimeter from the selected remote interface.
The language is shipped from the factory. The language selection is stored in non-volatile memory, and does not change when power has been off or after a remote interface reset. Chapter 3 Features and Functions Calibration Overview Calibration Overview This section gives a brief introduction to the calibration features of the multimeter. For a more detailed discussion of the calibration procedures, see chapter 4 in the Service Guide. Calibration Security This feature allows you to enter a security code to prevent accidental or unauthorized calibrations of the multimeter.
Chapter 3 Features and Functions Calibration Overview Calibration To Unsecure for Calibration You can unsecure the multimeter for calibration either from the front panel or remote interface. Chapter 3 Features and Functions Calibration Overview To Secure Against Calibration You can secure the multimeter against calibration either from the front panel or remote interface. Chapter 3 Features and Functions Calibration Overview Calibration To Change the Security Code To change the security code, you must first unsecure the multimeter, and then enter a new code.
Make sure Security you have read the security code rules on page 95 before attempting to continued secure the multimeter. Chapter 3 Features and Functions Calibration Overview Calibration Message You can use the calibration message feature to record calibration information about your multimeter.
Chapter 3 Features and Functions Operator Maintenance Operator Maintenance This section describes how to replace the power-line and current fuses. If you need additional information about replacing parts or repairing the multimeter, see the Service Guide. Refer to the later sections in this chapter for more complete details on each command. Throughout this manual, the following conventions are used for command syntax. Chapter 4 Remote Interface Reference Simplified Programming Overview Simplified Programming Overview You can program the multimeter to take measurements from the remote First-time interface using the following simple seven-step sequence.
SCPI users, see page Place the multimeter in a known state often the reset state. The easiest way to program the multimeter for measurements is by using the MEASure? However, this command does not offer much flexibility. When you execute the command, the multimeter presets the best settings for the requested configuration and immediately performs the measurement.
Use the range parameter to specify the expected value of the input signal. Chapter 4 Remote Interface Reference Simplified Programming Overview If you send two query commands without reading the response from the C a u t i o n first, and then attempt to read the second response, you may receive some data from the first response followed by the complete second response. They used the wagon-fort effectively, a tactic that had been mastered in the Hussite Wars of the previous century.
Peasants dug ditches around the outer edge of the fort and used timber to close gaps between and underneath the wagons. In the Hussite Wars, artillery was usually placed in the center on raised mounds of earth that allowed them to fire over the wagons. Wagon forts could be erected and dismantled quickly. They were quite mobile, but they also had drawbacks: Since their earlier use, artillery had increased in range and power.
Peasants served in rotation, sometimes for one week in four, and returned to their villages after service. While the men served, others absorbed their workload.
This sometimes meant producing supplies for their opponents, such as in the Archbishopric of Salzburg , where men worked to extract silver, which was used to hire fresh contingents of landsknechts for the Swabian League. However, the peasants lacked the Swabian League's cavalry, having few horses and little armour. They seem to have used their mounted men for reconnaissance. The lack of cavalry with which to protect their flanks, and with which to penetrate massed landsknecht squares, proved to be a long-term tactical and strategic problem.
Historians disagree on the nature of the revolt and its causes, whether it grew out of the emerging religious controversy centered on Luther; whether a wealthy tier of peasants saw their own wealth and rights slipping away, and sought to weave them into the legal, social and religious fabric of society; or whether peasants objected to the emergence of a modernizing, centralizing nation state. One view is that the origins of the German Peasants' War lay partly in the unusual power dynamic caused by the agricultural and economic dynamism of the previous decades.
Labor shortages in the last half of the 14th century had allowed peasants to sell their labor for a higher price; food and goods shortages had allowed them to sell their products for a higher price as well. Consequently, some peasants, particularly those who had limited allodial requirements, were able to accrue significant economic, social, and legal advantages.
Their attempt to break new ground was primarily seeking to increase their liberty by changing their status from serfs ,  such as the infamous moment when the peasants of Mühlhausen refused to collect snail shells around which their lady could wind her thread. The renewal of the signeurial system had weakened in the previous half century, and peasants were unwilling to see it restored. People in all layers of the social hierarchy—serfs or city dwellers, guildsmen or farmers, knights and aristocrats—started to question the established hierarchy.
The so-called Book of One Hundred Chapters , for example, written between and , promoted religious and economic freedom, attacking the governing establishment and displaying pride in the virtuous peasant. Luther's revolution may have added intensity to these movements, but did not create them; the two events, Luther's Protestant Reformation and the German Peasants' War, were separate, sharing the same years but occurring independently. Luther vehemently opposed the revolts, writing the pamphlet Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants , in which he remarks "Let everyone who can, smite, slay, and stab, secretly or openly It is just as one must kill a mad dog; if you do not strike him he will strike you.
Historian Roland Bainton saw the revolt as a struggle that began as an upheaval immersed in the rhetoric of Luther's Protestant Reformation against the Catholic Church but which really was impelled far beyond the narrow religious confines by the underlying economic tensions of the time. Friedrich Engels interpreted the war as a case in which an emerging proletariat the urban class failed to assert a sense of its own autonomy in the face of princely power and left the rural classes to their fate.
During the harvest, in Stühlingen , south of the Black Forest , the Countess of Lupfen ordered serfs to collect snail shells for use as thread spools after a series of difficult harvests. Within days, 1, peasants had gathered, created a list of grievances, elected officers, and raised a banner. On 16 February , 25 villages belonging to the city of Memmingen rebelled, demanding of the magistrates city council improvements in their economic condition and the general political situation.
They complained of peonage , land use, easements on the woods and the commons as well as ecclesiastical requirements of service and payment. The city set up a committee of villagers to discuss their issues, expecting to see a checklist of specific and trivial demands.
Unexpectedly, the peasants delivered a uniform declaration that struck at the pillars of the peasant-magisterial relationship. Twelve articles clearly and consistently outlined their grievances. The council rejected many of the demands. Historians have generally concluded that the articles of Memmingen became the basis for the Twelve Articles agreed on by the Upper Swabian Peasants Confederation of 20 March A single Swabian contingent, close to horse and 1, foot soldiers, however, could not deal with the size of the disturbance.
By , the uprisings in the Black Forest, the Breisgau, Hegau , Sundgau , and Alsace alone required a substantial muster of 3, foot and horse soldiers. The Twelve Articles demanded the right for communities to elect and depose clergymen and demanded the utilization of the "great tithe" for public purposes after subtraction of a reasonable pastor's salary.
Other demands of the Twelve Articles included the abolition of serfdom, death tolls, and the exclusion from fishing and hunting rights; restoration of the forests, pastures, and privileges withdrawn from the community and individual peasants by the nobility; and a restriction on excessive statute labor, taxes and rents. Finally, the Twelve Articles demanded an end to arbitrary justice and administration.
Kempten im Allgäu was an important city in the Allgäu , a region in what became Bavaria , near the borders with Württemberg and Austria. In the early eighth century, Celtic monks established a monastery there, Kempten Abbey. In , Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II declared the abbots members of the Reichsstand , or imperial estate, and granted the abbot the title of duke.
In , King Rudolf of Habsburg granted special privileges to the urban settlement in the river valley, making it a free imperial city. In the last property rights of the abbots in the Imperial City were sold in the so-called "Great Purchase", marking the start of the co-existence of two independent cities bearing the same name next to each other.
In this multi-layered authority, during the Peasants' War, the abbey-peasants revolted, plundering the abbey and moving on the town. On 4 April , 5, peasants, the Leipheimer Haufen literally: A band of five companies, plus approximately 25 citizens of Leipheim, assumed positions west of the town.
League reconnaissance reported to the Truchsess that the peasants were well-armed. They had cannons with powder and shot and they numbered 3,—4, They took an advantageous position on the east bank of the Biber. On the left stood a wood, and on their right, a stream and marshland; behind them, they had erected a wagon fortress, and they were armed with arquebuses and some light artillery pieces.
As he had done in earlier encounters with the peasants, the Truchsess negotiated while he continued to move his troops into advantageous positions. Keeping the bulk of his army facing Leipheim, he dispatched detachments of horse from Hesse and Ulm across the Danube to Elchingen. The detached troops encountered a separate group of 1, peasants engaged in local requisitions, and entered into combat, dispersing them and taking prisoners. At the same time, the Truchsess broke off his negotiations, and received a volley of fire from the main group of peasants.
He dispatched a guard of light horse and a small group of foot soldiers against the fortified peasant position. This was followed by his main force; when the peasants saw the size of his main force—his entire force was 1, horse, 7, foot, and 18 field guns—they began an orderly retreat. Of the 4, or so peasants who had manned the fortified position, 2, were able to reach the town of Leipheim itself, taking their wounded with them in carts.
Others sought to escape across the Danube, and drowned there. The Truchsess' horse units cut down an additional This was the first important battle of the war. An element of the conflict drew on resentment toward some of the nobility. The peasants of Odenwald had already taken the Cistercian Monastery at Schöntal , and were joined by peasant bands from Limpurg near Schwäbisch Hall and Hohenlohe.
A large band of peasants from the Neckar valley, under the leadership of Jack Rohrbach, joined them and from Neckarsulm , this expanded band, called the "Bright Band" in German, Heller Haufen , marched to the town of Weinsberg , where the Count of Helfenstein , then the Austrian Governor of Württemberg, was present. The peasants assaulted and captured the castle of Weinsberg; most of its own soldiers were on duty in Italy, and it had little protection.
Having taken the count as their prisoner, the peasants took their revenge a step further: They forced him, and approximately 70 other nobles who had taken refuge with him, to run the gauntlet of pikes, a popular form of execution among the landsknechts. Rohrbach ordered the band's piper to play during the running of the gauntlet.
This was too much for many of the peasant leaders of other bands; they repudiated Rohrbach's actions. He was deposed and replaced by a knight, Götz von Berlichingen , who was subsequently elected as supreme commander of the band. At the end of April, the band marched to Amorbach , joined on the way by some radical Odenwald peasants out for Berlichingen's blood. Berlichingen had been involved in the suppression of the Poor Conrad uprising 10 years earlier, and these peasants sought vengeance.
In the course of their march, they burned down the Wildenburg castle, a contravention of the Articles of War to which the band had agreed. The massacre at Weinsberg was also too much for Luther; this is the deed that drew his ire in Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants in which he castigated peasants for unspeakable crimes, not only for the murder of the nobles at Weinsberg, but also for the impertinence of their revolt.
On 29 April the peasant protests in Thuringia culminated in open revolt. Large sections of the town populations joined the uprising. Together they marched around the countryside and stormed the castle of the Counts of Schwarzburg. In the following days, a larger number of insurgents gathered in the fields around the town. When Müntzer arrived with fighters from Mühlhausen on 11 May, several thousand more peasants of the surrounding estates camped on the fields and pastures: The Princes' troops included close to 6, mercenaries , the Landsknechte.
As such they were experienced, well-equipped, well-trained and of good morale. The peasants, on the other hand, had poor, if any, equipment, and many had neither experience nor training.
Many of the peasants disagreed over whether to fight or negotiate. On 14 May, they warded off smaller feints of the Hesse and Brunswick troops, but failed to reap the benefits from their success. Instead the insurgents arranged a ceasefire and withdrew into a wagon fort. The next day Philip's troops united with the Saxon army of Duke George and immediately broke the truce, starting a heavy combined infantry, cavalry and artillery attack. The peasants were caught off-guard and fled in panic to the town, followed and continuously attacked by the public forces.
Most of the insurgents were slain in what turned out to be a massacre. Casualty figures are unreliable but estimates range from 3, to 10, while the Landsknecht casualties were as few as six two of whom were only wounded.
Müntzer was captured, tortured and executed at Mühlhausen on 27 May. The Battle of Böblingen 12 May perhaps resulted in the greatest casualties of the war. When the peasants learned that the Truchsess Seneschal of Waldburg had pitched camp at Rottenburg, they marched towards him and took the city of Herrenberg on 10 May. Avoiding the advances of the Swabian League to retake Herrenberg, the Württemberg band set up three camps between Böblingen and Sindelfingen.
There they formed four units, standing upon the slopes between the cities. Their 18 artillery pieces stood on a hill called Galgenberg, facing the hostile armies. The peasants were overtaken by the League's horse, which encircled and pursued them for kilometres. Upon identifying two squadrons of League and Alliance horse approaching on each flank, now recognized as a dangerous Truchsess strategy, they redeployed the wagon-fort and guns to the hill above the town.
Having learned how to protect themselves from a mounted assault, peasants assembled in four massed ranks behind their cannon, but in front of their wagon-fort, intended to protect them from a rear attack.
The peasant gunnery fired a salvo at the League advanced horse, which attacked them on the left. The Truchsess' infantry made a frontal assault, but without waiting for his foot soldiers to engage, he also ordered an attack on the peasants from the rear. As the knights hit the rear ranks, panic erupted among the peasants. Hipler and Metzler fled with the master gunners.
Two thousand reached the nearby woods, where they re-assembled and mounted some resistance. In the chaos that followed, the peasants and the mounted knights and infantry conducted a pitched battle. By nightfall only peasants remained. A regional planning process Raumordnungsverfahren was carried out for the Stuttgart 21 project in and The through station solution favoured by Deutsche Bahn was examined as a proposed route with different suboptions.
These included options with different platform positions, numbers of track and possibilities for further development. Other options, which deviated from the basic concept of a pure through station at the location of the existing terminus station, were mentioned in the spatial planning process, but were not examined to the same depth: In addition, a Hauptbahnhof am Rosenstein main station on Rosenstein ridge option was considered, which would have involved abandonment of the current station.
In addition, station locations in Bad Cannstatt and Untertürkheim were considered. On 28 February , a Europe-wide architectural competition for the redesign of the station was announced.
In a two-stage process, 19 participants out of applicants who had initially submitted a concept were selected for a second round. A jury chaired by Klaus Humpert selected four equal winners in July The support structure of the station concourse was developed by Frei Otto.
A modified building design was presented at the end of August In addition to improvements to the track, a ninth and tenth platform track at the main station should also be investigated.
On 23 April , the Federal Railway Authority approved, among other things, the construction of two escape staircases per platform and changes to the shells surrounding the four direct entrances from the outside. With the symbolic start of construction on 2 February reconstruction work began on the track apron; these were necessary for the construction of the cross-platform concourse at the end of the platforms. Work on the denolition of the south wing began on 13 January with the gutting of the building.
The approximately meter-wide excavation was due to be bridged by two ten-metre-wide bridges  by April Both entrances are barrier-free. The repositioning of the cross-platform concourse was postponed several times. According to the planning status of March , the cross-platform concourse was to be gradually advanced between July and December Platform tracks 1 and 2 were re-connected without completing the planned construction of the new S-Bahn tunnel in this area.
Deutsche Bahn reduced some train services during this period to reduce congestion of trains at the station. In July, September and October  trains derailed on the exit towards Feuerbach, which had been rebuilt in the course of the Stuttgart 21 project.
Only multiple units and hauled trains could use it. According to Federal Railway Authority data, the unrestricted clearance of the track was not possible on the basis of documents that had been submitted. In March , the beginning of civil engineering work was scheduled for early Out of 14 construction stages planned so far, 7 had been realised and the work had been delayed by about five months.
An already issued statistical proof of the safety of the station has not applied since due to changed legal requirements and a renewal is pending. The work was thus eight months late compared with early projections. The concreting of the first roof stanchions was due to start in June The 28 columns are to be concreted two at a time.
In mid, the building of the former Deutsche Bahndirektion Deutsche Bahn divisional headquarters was undermined and placed on a 1. This rests in turn on some supports, between which the construction machinery and vehicles can operate.
DB had sought the demolition and reconstruction of the building built in — The city of Stuttgart, however, insisted on its preservation. The groundwater has been lowered by approximately seven metres by pumping for the construction of the excavations. The resulting funnel of lowered groundwater usually extends for several hundred metres.
In order to reduce the disturbance, water is reintroduced infiltration via injection well in the vicinity of the construction excavations. The groundwater must be treated prior to being reintroduced to reduce possible pollution. The management of groundwater was originally expected to involve around three million cubic metres of groundwater. Following a change in the plan at the beginning of , this figure doubled to 6. The groundwater management was expected to start in January It is planned to successively carry out the construction of the valley crossing and the station in 25 subsections.
The excavated material is transported via separate construction roads and a conveyor belt to a central logistics area at Stuttgart Nord station and transported from there on freight trains. The commissioning of the new station is scheduled for December A traffic forecast for anticipates around , long-distance and regional passengers, including , from the direction of Feuerbach and Bad Cannstatt and 88, from the Filder Tunnel, Obertürkheim or Untertürkheim.
Stuttgarter Netz AG , a consortium of several private railway companies, intends to operate part of the existing terminal station. The company expects up to trains to stop at the station every working day. Eight tracks of the terminal station, the access tracks from Bad Cannstatt, Feuerbach and Vaihingen and the existing signal box would be preserved for this purpose.
Overall, a quarter of the existing area would be preserved. Among other things, secondary lines such as the Schönbuch and the Wieslauf Valley Railways would be connected with Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof. According to a simulation commissioned by the promoters, the optimum performance range of the through station lies between 42 and 51 trains per hour, while for an upgraded terminal station the Kopfbahnhof 21 concept it would be 28 to 38 trains per hour.
The maximum flow will be 72 trains in the through station or 43 trains per hour in the terminal station. Critics doubt these claims. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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