At this time, the city was called "Juvavum" and was awarded the status of a Roman municipium in 45 AD. Juvavum developed into an important town of the Roman province of Noricum. After the Norican frontiers collapse, Juvavum declined so sharply that by the late 7th century it nearly became a ruin. The Life of Saint Rupert credits the 8th-century saint with the city's rebirth.
When Theodo of Bavaria asked Rupert to become bishop c. Rupert chose Juvavum, ordained priests, and annexed the manor Piding. Rupert named the city "Salzburg". He traveled to evangelise among pagans. The name Salzburg means "Salt Castle" Latin: The name derives from the barges carrying salt on the river Salzach , which were subject to a toll in the 8th century as was customary for many communities and cities on European rivers.
Hohensalzburg Fortress , the city's fortress , was built in by Archbishop Gebhard, who made it his residence. Independence from Bavaria was secured in the late 14th century. Salzburg was the seat of the Archbishopric of Salzburg , a prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire.
As the reformation movement gained steam, riots broke out among peasants in the areas in and around Salzburg. The city was occupied during the German Peasants' War , and the archbishop had to flee to the safety of the fortress  It was besieged for three months in Eventually, tensions were quelled, and the city's independence led to an increase in wealth and prosperity, culminating in the late 16th to 18th centuries under the Prince Archbishops Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau , Markus Sittikus , and Paris Lodron.
It was in the 17th century that Italian architects and Austrians who had studied the Baroque style rebuilt the city center as it is today along with many palaces. On 31 October , the th anniversary of the 95 Theses , Archbishop Count Leopold Anton von Firmian signed an Edict of Expulsion, the Emigrationspatent , directing all Protestant citizens to recant their non-Catholic beliefs.
Most of them accepted an offer by King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia , traveling the length and breadth of Germany to their new homes in East Prussia. In —, under archbishop Hieronymus Graf von Colloredo , Salzburg was a centre of late Illuminism. In , the territory of Salzburg was transferred to the Kingdom of Bavaria after Austria's defeat at Wagram.
After the Congress of Vienna with the Treaty of Munich , Salzburg was definitively returned to Austria, but without Rupertigau and Berchtesgaden, which remained with Bavaria.
Salzburg was integrated into the Salzach province and Salzburgerland was ruled from Linz. In , Salzburg's status was restored as the capital of the Duchy of Salzburg , a crownland of the Austrian Empire. The city became part of Austria-Hungary in as the capital of a crownland into the Austrian Empire. The nostalgia of the Romantic Era led to increased tourism. In , a funicular was installed to facilitate tourism to Hohensalzburg Fortress . In , it represented the residual German-speaking territories of the Austrian heartlands.
The Anschluss the occupation and annexation of Austria, including Salzburg, into the Third Reich took place on 12 March , one day before a scheduled referendum on Austria's independence. German troops moved into the city. Political opponents, Jewish citizens and other minorities were subsequently arrested and deported to concentration camps. The synagogue was destroyed. During the Nazi occupation, a Romani camp was built in Salzburg-Maxglan.
It was an Arbeitserziehungslager work 'education' camp , which provided slave labour to local industry. It also operated as a Zwischenlager transit camp , holding Roma before their deportation to German extermination camps or ghettos in German-occupied territories in eastern Europe. Allied bombing destroyed 7, houses and killed inhabitants. Fifteen strikes destroyed 46 percent of the city's buildings, especially those around Salzburg train station.
Although the town's bridges and the dome of the cathedral were destroyed, much of its Baroque architecture remained intact. As a result, Salzburg is one of the few remaining examples of a town of its style.
American troops entered the city on 5 May and it became the centre of the American-occupied area in Austria. On 27 January , the th anniversary of the birth of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , all 35 churches of Salzburg rang their bells after 8: Major celebrations took place throughout the year. Salzburg is on the banks of the river Salzach , at the northern boundary of the Alps. The mountains to Salzburg's south contrast with the rolling plains to the north. The Altstadt , or "old town", is dominated by its baroque towers and churches and the massive Hohensalzburg Fortress.
This area is surrounded by two smaller mountains, the Mönchsberg and Kapuzinerberg , which offer green relief within the city.
Salzburg is part of the temperate zone. Due to the location at the northern rim of the Alps, the amount of precipitation is comparatively high, mainly in the summer months. The specific drizzle is called Schnürlregen in the local dialect. In winter and spring, pronounced foehn winds regularly occur. Salzburg's official population significantly increased in when the city absorbed adjacent municipalities.
New residential space was constructed for American soldiers of the postwar occupation, and could be used for refugees when they left. Around , Salzburg passed the mark of , citizens, and in , it reached the mark of , citizens. The Romanesque and Gothic churches , the monasteries and the early carcass houses dominated the medieval city for a long time. The choir of the Franciscan Church Hall , construction was begun by Hans von Burghausen and completed by Stephan Krumenauer , is one of the most prestigious religious gothic constructions of southern Germany.
Peter's Cemetery , the St. George's Chapel and the stately halls of the "Hoher Stock" in Hohensalzburg Fortress were constructed. Inspired by Vincenzo Scamozzi , Prince Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau began to transform the medieval town to the architectural ideals of the late Renaissance. Plans for a massive cathedral by Scamozzi failed to materialize upon the fall of the archbishop. A second cathedral planned by Santino Solari rose as the first early Baroque church in Salzburg.
It served as an example for many other churches in Southern Germany and Austria. Markus Sittikus and Paris von Lodron continued to rebuild the city with major projects such as Hellbrunn Palace , the prince archbishop's residence, the university buildings, fortifications, and many other buildings. Giovanni Gaspare Zuccalli , by order of the same archbishop, created the Erhard and the Kajetan church in the south of the town. After the era of Ernst von Thun, the city's expansion came to a halt, which is the reason why there are no churches built in the rococo style.
Sigismund von Schrattenbach continued with the construction of "Sigmundstor" and the statue of holy Maria on the cathedral square.
With the fall and division of the former "Fürsterzbistums Salzburg" Archbishopric to Upper Austria , Bavaria Rupertigau and Tyrol Zillertal Matrei began a long period of urban stagnancy. This era didn't end before the period of promoterism Gründerzeit brought new life into urban development.
The builder dynasty Jakob Ceconi and Carl Freiherr von Schwarz filled major positions in shaping the city in this era. Buildings of classical modernism and in particular the post-war modernism are frequently encountered in Salzburg.
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