Minsky 1.0 Demo #2 Godley Simulation
Wine brokers discovered that these wines could be made saleable by the addition of a little diethylene glycol , more commonly found in antifreeze , which imparted sweetness and body to the wine.
The antifreeze jokes persist, but in fact the scandal was the saviour of the industry in Austria. Strict new regulations restricted yields among other things, producers moved towards more red wine and a dry style of white wine that was what the s market would demand, and the middlemen went bust forcing producers to sell direct and encouraging the expression of local terroir. The Austrian Wine Marketing Board was created in as a response to the scandal, and Austria's membership of the European Union has prompted further revisions of her wine laws, notably the new DAC system of geographical appellations launched in see Classification section below.
Today Austria lies 16th in the list of wine producing countries by volume , but the wines are now of a quality that can take on—and beat—the best in the world. As can be seen from the table, Grüner Veltliner is the dominant white grape in Austria, producing generally dry wines ranging from short-lived Heuriger wines to Spätleses capable of long life.
Neuburger was supposedly found as flotsam in the Danube in the s, but is now known to be a cross between Silvaner and the ancient Roter Veltliner.
Frühroter Veltliner is also known as Malvasier, suggesting a link to the Malvasia grape family of the Eastern Mediterranean. There were high hopes for Goldburger , a cross between Welschriesling and Orangetraube bred in Klosterneuburg, but after an initial wave of planting, enthusiasm has dimmed. Zierfandler Spätrot and Rotgipfler are local grapes of the Thermenregion, and are often blended together as Spätrot-Rotgipfler.
The former can be made into powerful wines for ageing, the latter is easier to grow and is generally blended; both are also made into a lighter style for drinking young. The former is the more "serious" variety, Blauer Portugieser produces fresh, fruity red wines for drinking young. Saint Laurent came from France in the midth century, and seems to have substantial Pinot noir Blauerburgunder parentage; St Laurent has a reputation for being problematic to grow, but can produce good quality wine.
Rössler is the latest variety to be bred at Klosterneuburg. Since joining the EU the Austrians have made real efforts to improve matters. At present there are three systems—the traditional system based on the German scheme, a different classification used only in the Wachau , and a new system of regional appellations called DACs that is being trialled in the Weinviertel.
The existing system was based on the German system during World War II , but was modified after The " Vinea Wachau Nobilis Districtus " has three categories, all for dry wines:. Regional wine committees award the DAC to wines typical of their region. There are now ten DACs:. In Austria had 51, hectares of vineyard, almost all of it in the east of the country.
Of these 31, ha are in the state of Niederösterreich Lower Austria and 15, ha in Burgenland  which together make up Weinland Österreich. Steiermark Styria accounts for 3, ha, Wien Vienna ha and there are 32 ha in "the Austrian Mountains" Bergland Österreich , which covers the rest of the country.
The four main wine regions are split into 16 districts. This narrow valley of the Danube around Melk  is reminiscent of the great wine areas of the Rhine, with steep terraces that produce world-class Grüner Veltliner and Riesling wines. Climatically and geologically it marks the transition from the Alps to the Hungarian plains, leading to a diverse array of microclimates and terroir , with the river moderating the effects of the cold Alpine winds. Downstream of the Wachau lies the Kremstal region, centred on the town of Krems.
To the north of Krems lies Langenlois , which is the main town of Kamptal, the valley of the river Kamp. Riesling thrives on these steep slopes; closer to the Danube the valley broadens and more red grapes are grown.
To the south of Krems lies Herzogenburg, at the centre of Traisental,  which was only designated as a wine district in Mostly Grüner Veltliner is grown here, which is made into a fresh style for drinking young. Between Krems and Vienna lies the Donauland, which covers two very different areas. North of the Danube is the plateau of Wagram , where the Grüner Veltliner is a bit more full-bodied and aromatic, and Roter Veltliner is something of a local speciality.
Blauer Zweigelt and Pinot noir wines are also made here, as well as a little Eiswein. Further downstream, just outside Vienna lies Klosterneuburg. As the biggest private wine estate in the country, the abbey has played a formative role in Austrian wine for the last years. The Federal Institute for Viticulture and Pomology was the world's first college of viticulture and continues to play an important part in the development of wine in Austria.
The Weinviertel lies in the northeast corner of Austria, between the Danube and the Czech and Slovak borders. Even sparkling wine is made from Riesling and Grüner Veltliner in the far northeast around Poysdorf.
The deep soils between Vienna and the Neusiedlersee are rapidly establishing a reputation for well-balanced red wines made from Zweigelt and Blaufränkisch. Being close to Vienna and full of history, the area  is a popular area to visit. The spa region south of Vienna saw two wine regions, Gumpoldskirchen and Bad Vöslau ,  merged in Climatically similar to Burgundy, with a wide variation in soils, all kinds of grape varieties are made here, many being made into heurigen wines.
Perhaps the most interesting wines are the Spätrot-Rotgipflers, made from a blend of the local varieties Zierfandler Spätrot and Rotgipfler, both of which are white grapes despite their names. The east side of the Neusiedler See  is also known as Seewinkel, "corner of the lake".
The shallow Neusiedler See Lake Neusiedl is one of the few places on earth where noble rot attacks grapes reliably every year. This means that botrytised dessert wines can be made more easily, and hence sold more cheaply, than in other areas famous for this style of wine.
Increasingly, red wine is also being made in this region. The "hill country" to the west of the lake  offers a diversity of terrain that is reflected in the number of grape varieties and styles of wine made here. Perhaps the most famous is the Ruster Ausbruch dessert wine from the western shore of the lake.
The Mittelburgenland is a southern continuation of the forested hills to the west of the Neusiedlersee. The most famous vineyard of the South Burgenland, Eisenberg  reflects the red, iron-rich soil which imparts a distinct spiciness to the Blaufränkisch grown here. A speciality here is Uhudler wine, made from hybrids with North American species such as Isabella , Concord , Delaware , Noah , Elvira and Ripadella , which was banned for a while after the scandal.
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